Software Testing Interview Questions

Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers ->

What is the MAIN benefit of designing tests early in the life cycle?
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It helps prevent defects from being introduced into the code.
What is risk-based testing?
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Risk-based testing is the term used for an approach to creating a test strategy that is based on prioritizing tests by risk. The basis of the approach is a detailed risk analysis and prioritizing of risks by risk level. Tests to address each risk are then specified, starting with the highest risk first.
What is the KEY difference between preventative and reactive approaches to testing?
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Preventative tests are designed early; reactive tests are designed after the software has been produced.
Define software?
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Software is a set of instructions used to acquire inputs and to manipulate them to produce the desired output in terms of functions and performance as determined by the user of the software.
Define testing?
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Testing is a process of executing a program with the intent of finding of an error.
What are the types of software?
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There are two types of software. There are
System Software
Application Software
What is the difference between system and application software?
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Computer software is often divided into two categories :
System software : This software includes the operating system and all utilities that enable the computer to function.
Application software : These consist of programs that do real work for users.
Define process?
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A process is a series of steps involving activities, constraints, and resources that produce an intended output of some kind.
What are the categories of defects?
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There are three main categories of defects:
Wrong
Missing
Extra
What are the types of Errors?
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Errors can be classified into two categories : Syntax Error Logic Error
What is the difference between syntax and logical errors?
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Syntax Error : A syntax error is a program statement that violates one or more rules of the language in which it is written.
Logic Error : A logic error deals with incorrect data fields, out–of–range terms, and invalid combinations.
What is fault?
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A fault is a condition that causes a system to fail in performing its required function.
What is failure?
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Failure is the inability of the software to perform a required function to its specification.
What is a bug?
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A software bug may be defined as a coding error that causes an unexpected defect, fault, flaw, or imperfection in a computer program. In other words, if a program does not perform as intended, it is most likely a bug.
What is test log?
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A test log is used by the test team to record what occurred during test execution.
What is the difference between static and dynamic testing?
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Static testing : is performed using the software documentation. The code is not executing during static testing.
Dynamic testing : requires the code to be in an executable state to perform the tests.
What is debugging?
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Debugging is a process that developers go through to identify the cause of bugs or defects in code and undertake corrections.
What is a maturity level?
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A maturity level specifies the level of performance expected from an organization.
Define Metrics?
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The continuous application of measurement based techniques to the software development process and its products to supply meaningful and timely management information, together with the use of those techniques to improve that process and its products.
What are the categories of metrics?
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There are three types of metrics are :
Product Metrics
Process Metrics
Project Metrics
What is the difference between system and real time software?
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System Software : System software is a collection of programs used to run the system as an assistance to other software programs. The compliers, editors, utilities, operating system components, drivers, and interfaces are examples of system software. This software resides in the computer system and consumes its resources. A computer system without system software cannot function.
Real time Software : Real time software deals with a changing environment. First, it collects the input and converts it from analog to a digital, control component that responds to the external environment and performs the action.
What is verification?
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Verification ensures the product is designed to deliver all functionality to the customer; it typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements and specifications; this can be done with checklists, issues lists, walkthroughs and inspection meetings.
What is meant by validation?
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Validation ensures that functionality, as defined in requirements, is the intended behavior of the product; validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed.
What is error tracking?
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Error tracking is an activity that provides a means for assessing the status of a current project.
What is white box testing?
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White box testing is a test case design method that uses the control structure of the procedural design to derive test cases. It is otherwise called as structural testing.
What is Black box testing?
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Black box testing is a test case design method that focuses on the functional requirements of the software. It is otherwise called as functional testing.
What is the difference between black box and white box testing?
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Black box testing is a testing strategy based solely on requirements and specifications. Black box testing requires no knowledge of internal paths, structures, or implementation of the software being tested.
White box testing is a testing strategy based on internal paths, code structures, and implementation of the software being tested. White box testing generally requires detailed programming skills.
What is the difference between coupling and cohension?
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Cohension is a measure of the relative functional strength of a module.
Coupling is a measure of the relative interdependence among modules.
What is Software reliability?
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Software reliability is defined as the probability of failure free operation of a computer program in a specified environment for a specified time.
What is meant by unit testing?
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Unit testing is the process of testing a particular complied program, i.e., a window, a report, an interface, etc. independently as a stand alone component/program. The types and degrees of unit tests can vary among modified and newly created programs. Unit testing is mostly performed by the programmers who are also responsible for the creation of the necessary unit test data.
What are the categories of debugging?
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The various categories for debugging are :
Brute force debugging
Backtracking
Cause elimination
Program slicing
Fault tree analysis
What is incremental testing?
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Incremental testing is partial testing of an incomplete product. The goal of incremental testing is to provide an early feedback to software developers.
What is regression testing?
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Regression testing is not a level of testing, but it is the retesting of software that occurs when changes are made to ensure that the new version of the software has retained the capabilities of the old version and that no new defects have been introduced due to the changes.
What are the characteristic of process?
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Any process has the following characteristics:
The process prescribes all of the major process activities.
The process uses resources, subject to a set of constraints (such as a schedule), and produces intermediate and final products.
The process may be composed of sub processes that are linked in some way. The process may be defined as a hierarchy of processes, organized so that each sub process has its own process model.
Each process activity has entry and exit criteria, so that we know when the activity begins and ends.
The activities are organized in a sequence, so that it is clear when one activity is performed relative to the other activities.
Every process has a set of guiding principles that explain the goals of each activity.
What are the advantages of waterfall model?
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The various advantages of the waterfall model include:
It is a linear model.
It is a segmental model.
It is systematic and sequential.
It is a simple one.
It has proper documentation.
What is RAD?
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The RAD (Rapid Application Development Model) model is proposed when requirements and solutions can be modularized as independent system or software components, each of which can be developed by different teams. After these smaller system components are developed, they are integrated to produce the large software system solution.
What is system integration testing?
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Testing of software components that have been distributed across multiple platforms (e.g., client, web server, application server, and database server) to produce failures caused by system integration defects (i.e. defects involving distribution and back office integration).
What are the types of attributes?
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Simple Attribute
Composite Attribute
Single Valued Attribute
Multivalued Attribute
Derived Attribute
What are the different Methodologies in Agile Development Model?
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There are currently seven different Agile methodologies that I am aware of:
Extreme Programming (XP)
Scrum
Lean Software Development
Feature-Driven Development
Agile Unified Process
Crystal
Dynamic Systems Development Model (DSDM)
Which activity in the fundamental test process includes evaluation of the testability of the requirements and system?
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Test analysis and design.
Why are static testing and dynamic testing described as complementary?
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Because they share the aim of identifying defects but differ in the types of defect they find.
What are the phases of a formal review ?
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In contrast to informal reviews, formal reviews follow a formal process. A typical formal review process consists of six main steps:
Planning
Kick-off
Preparation
Review meeting
Rework
Follow-up.
What is the role of moderator in review process?
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The moderator (or review leader) leads the review process. He or she deter-mines, in co-operation with the author, the type of review, approach and the composition of the review team. The moderator performs the entry check and the follow-up on the rework, in order to control the quality of the input and output of the review process. The moderator also schedules the meeting, disseminates documents before the meeting, coaches other team members, paces the meeting, leads possible discussions and stores the data that is collected.
What is an equivalence partition (also known as an equivalence class)?
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An input or output range of values such that only one value in the range becomes a test case.
When should configuration management procedures be implemented?
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During test planning.
A Type of functional Testing, which investigates the functions relating to detection of threats, such as virus from malicious outsiders.
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Security Testing
Testing where in we subject the target of the test , to varying workloads to measure and evaluate the performance behaviors and ability of the target and of the test to continue to function properly under these different workloads.
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Load Testing Credits: http://www.a2zinterviews.com,http://www.guru99.com Shaikh Shaikh

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